Common Species Of Penicillium
The name Penicillium was derived from the fact that their conidiophores have a close resemblance to a paintbrush . Today, there are over 300 accepted species of Penicillium.
Some of the most ubiquitous Penicillium species include P. chrysogenum , P. purpurogenum, P. janthinellum, P. digitatum, and P. marneffei . The identification of some of these species can be based on their microscopic features and macroscopic colony morphology, but with some closely related species, molecular identification is more reliable .
Who Do I Contact For Help With Mold Removal
Rental Properties/Apartments If you live in an apartment and you feel that your landlord/property manager has not promptly addressed your concerns, please contact the Virginia Office of the Attorney Generals Consumer Protection Section. The Office of Consumer Protection provides information to individuals on matters related to landlord-tenant issues, and can be reached at either 804-786-2042 or 1-800-552-9963. Additionally, the Virginia Residential Landlord and Tenant Act establishes the rights and obligations of residential landlords and tenants in the Commonwealth, but only the courts can enforce those rights and obligations. To review the Act, please click on Virginia Residential Landlord & Tenant Act.
Residential HomesIf you own a residential home, it is recommended to contact a mold assessment, remediation, or removal company that holds a certification from the American Industrial Hygiene Association. The Virginia Department of Health does not assess the credentials of, or make recommendations regarding, specific mold specialists.
NOTE: VDH does not have the capability to provide environmental testing or remediation for mold problems. Concerned citizens are advised to follow the practical advice given on this site, refer to additional resources, and if necessary, consult an environmental specialist.
Does A Landlord Have To Remove Mold From A Rental Property In Texas
The law says that landlords in Texas have a duty to remove conditions that materially affect the physical health or safety of an ordinary tenant if all of the following are true:
- The condition was not caused by the tenant , the tenants family, or the tenant’s guests and
- The landlord has proper written notice of the condition and
- The tenant is not delinquent in rent at the time of giving the landlord notice to repair or remedy.
Read the law here: Tex. Prop. Code § 92.056.
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Suing Your Landlord For Black Mold
If push comes to shove, you may need to file a personal injury lawsuit against your landlord. Depending on the extent of your mold-related illness and/or property losses, and your jurisdiction’s dollar amount limits on claims, you may be able to resolve the issue in small claims court. Small claims courts generally require the parties to represent themselves and have claim limits in the $3,000 to $10,000 range, but are regulated at the state level.
If the dollar amount is higher than your state’s small claims limit, which may be the case if your illness requires extensive treatment , you may need to consider working with an attorney to file a more formal injury claim.
Every case is different, but damages for black mold contamination may include the following:
- Medical expenses related to the mold exposure this may include future expenses as well, if you are able to prove the need for ongoing medical care.
- Lost wages as a result of the illness, time spent removing mold from the rental property, or other mold-related causes.
- Destruction of property related to mold contamination.
- Loss of earning capacity as a result of injuries.
- Pain and suffering.
What Are Some Common Asthma Triggers
Triggers are things that can cause asthma symptoms, an episode or attack or make asthma worse. People with asthma may have just one trigger, or they may find that several things act as triggers.
Common asthma triggers are:
Be sure to work with your doctor to identify your — or your child’s triggers.
Then take steps to control these triggers.
Learn more about these triggers and others at the EPA Asthma Home Page.
Read more about mold at
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How Much Time Does A Landlord Have To Remove Mold From My Apartment Or House
It depends on how you send notice to the landlord to repair or remedy the problem, and on the circumstances of the condition and its repair.
The landlord has a reasonable amount of time to remove the mold after receiving the tenants notice if:
- The tenant sent the notice by certified mail, return receipt, or other method with tracking or
- The tenant sent a second written notice after waiting a reasonable amount of time after sending a first written notice.
Tip: If you send your first notice by certified mail, return receipt, or other method with tracking, you are not required to send a second notice to your landlord.
Note: You should try getting the problem fixed as quickly as possible by talking with or calling the landlord. However, to protect your rights to repair under Texas law, it is very important that you give the landlord , preferably by certified mail, return receipt, or other method with tracking.
Can Ozone Air Cleaners Remove Indoor Mold
Some air cleaners are designed to produce ozone which is a strong oxidizing agent and a known irritant of the lungs and respiratory system. Studies have shown that ozone, even at high concentrations, is not effective at killing airborne mold or surface mold contamination. Even if mold was killed by ozone, the health threats would not be reduced until mold contaminants are removed through cleaning. Health experts do not recommend the use of ozone to address mold or any other indoor air problems.
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Protecting Yourself During Mold Cleanup
Before starting your cleanup process, make sure you have the proper equipment and take precautions to protect yourself.
- Avoid breathing in mold or mold spores. In order to limit your exposure to airborne mold spores, you may want to wear an N-95 respirator, available at many hardware stores and from companies that advertise on the Internet. Some N-95 respirators resemble a paper dust mask with a nozzle on the front others are made primarily of plastic or rubber and have removable cartridges that trap most of the mold spores from entering. In order to be effective, the respirator or mask must fit properly, so carefully follow the instructions supplied with the respirator. Look for the label of N-95 and NIOSH to assure the respirator will provide the protection needed.
- Wear gloves. Long gloves that extend to the middle of the forearm are recommended. When working with water and a mild detergent, household rubber gloves may be used. If you are using a disinfectant, chlorine bleach or a strong cleaning solution, you should select gloves made from natural rubber, neoprene, nitrile, polyurethane or PVC.
- Wear goggles. Goggles that do not have ventilation holes are recommended to avoid getting mold or mold spores in your eyes.
How Much Mold Exposure Is Harmful
Molds are a type of fungi, which can flourish both indoors and outside. There are millions of mold species.
Mold is important for the planets ecosystem, because it helps break down waste products and organic matter, such as leaves, dead trees, and garbage.
Some people get sick from exposure to mold. Others have no symptoms and dont experience ill effects of any kind.
In this article, well talk about the potential dangers of mold exposure, identify whos most vulnerable, and provide solutions for keeping your environment mold-proof.
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Mold Clauses In Leases
Some landlords include clauses in the lease that purport to relieve them from any liability resulting from mold growth. At least one court has refused to enforce such a clause, ruling that to do so would be against public policy. More cases from other parts of the country are sure to arise as mold litigation makes its way through the courts. Some states require landlords to disclose information about mold to tenants.
A smart landlord will try to prevent the conditions that lead to the growth of moldand tenants should be the landlord’s partner in this effort. This approach requires maintaining the structural integrity of the property , which is the landlord’s job. You can help by preventing mold problems in your home in the first place and promptly reporting problems that need the landlord’s attention.
How To Prevent Penicillium Mold From Growing Back
Once you have removed all Penicillium molds from your home, you need to prevent them from growing back. Since mold spores are airborne, your home should be well ventilated with plenty of air circulation. This will reduce dampness and humidity, which are the key factor in any mold contamination. Using an air purifier and/or dehumidifier will also help reduce the relative humidity inside your home.
For persistent mold infestations, you should contact a mold removal professional. At Mold Busters, our diagnostic mold inspections and visual assessments often reveal hidden moisture problems that contribute to ongoing mold contamination and decreased indoor air quality inside of homes.
to book your mold inspection.
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Who Can Test My Home Or Clean Fix And Remediate My Home For Mold
EPA does not have a certification program for mold inspectors or mold remediation firms. EPA does not maintain a list of mold inspectors or mold remediation firms, though some states might.
Some states and organizations may require certification, trainings, or examinations for practitioners in the indoor air quality industry. Sometimes companies that provide radon, lead or asbestos inspection services provide mold assessment services as another part of their business. Ask about qualifications, training and experience and check references for professionals you are considering.
The key to mold growth is moisture so part of assessing mold problems is looking for existing or potential moisture problems. Companies that provide water damage inspection services may help look for moisture and some may be familiar with mold problems as well.
There are no established safe levels or regulatory standards for mold, so, although testing can be done, it may be of limited use in helping to understand the problem. Mold assessment is mainly done through visual inspection of areas where there have been moisture problems or water damage.
Our Safe Disposal Guarantee
got mold?â¢ promises a safe disposal process to remove all mold and moldy items, as well as the contents of the HEPA vacuum cleaner, from your home in completely sealed plastic bags.
Our safe disposal process will guarantee safe indoor air quality upon the completion of the remediation project, allowing peace of mind and preventing further contamination issues.
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What Is Mold Allergy
An allergy is an abnormal reaction by your immune system to common substances that dont affect most people. Molds are a type of fungus that exists almost everywhere in the world. The molds that grow inside our houses prefer dark and damp places and can be harmful to some people with immune systems that develop responses against mold.
People with mold allergies may develop itchy skin or rash, watery or itchy eyes, runny or itchy noses or in more severe cases, breathing problems.
There are probably thousands of different types of molds. Its possible to be allergic to only certain types of mold.
What Is The Outlook For People Who Have A Mold Allergy
Mold allergy cant be cured, but it can be managed with efforts to reduce your exposure to mold and with taking suggested medications if needed.
There are certain types of molds that are more dangerous to your health than others. These are molds that emit mycotoxins or cause infections, which can cause serious illness and even death.
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Who Does Mold Allergy Affect
Molds can irritate everyone, regardless of whether you’re allergic to them. But the effects are generally worse for certain groups of people who have compromised immune systems due to disease or medication.
Risk factors for developing an allergy to mold include:
- Having a family or personal history of allergies.
- Having a respiratory condition like asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease .
- Being exposed to mold over a long period of time due to your job or to living in a humid house or a building with poor ventilation.
What Are Toxigenic Reactions To Mold
A toxigenic mold produces toxins. There are approximately 20 common toxins that mold is known to produce.
When you ingest or inhale these toxins, your chance of becoming ill increases. Upon exposure to toxigenic mold, you may experience the following effects:
- Mucous membrane irritation
- Acute/chronic central nervous system disorders
- Hormone disorders
Another serious condition associated with mold exposure is hypersensitive pneumonitis. This is an acute, or chronic, lung disease brought on by inhaling fungal antigens.
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Can I Sue My Landlord For Black Mold
Created by FindLaw’s team of legal writers and editors
If you have reason to believe your rental is contaminated with toxic black mold, and it has caused health problems, suing your landlord for black mold is one way to get compensated.
The following information will help you understand your rights and legal options when you have been injured by black mold in an apartment or other rental unit.
Helpful Tips For Reducing A Stuffy Nose
Nasal decongestants in the form of sprays and tablets can help relieve a stuffy nose. However, these are only temporary fixes and should not be used too often as they can become addictive. In fact, nasal sprays can actually damage your nasal passages if used in excess.
A humidifier can also help reduce stuffiness by adding moisture to the air and promoting mucous production.
If you are still having persistent stuffy nose, you should contact your doctor or another medical professional.
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Who Is Most At Risk Of Mold Exposure
We come into contact with mold in three primary ways: inhalation, physical contact or ingestion. But every reaction to mold is different, as no two immune systems are the same.
Some people are more sensitive to mold than others. Both your genetic makeup and your current state of health are factors that will influence your reaction.
The following groups of people are especially susceptible to the adverse health effects of mold exposure, because their bodies may be weak to begin with:
- Infants and small children
If youve been experiencing some of these symptoms and are concerned, .
Does Carpet Cause Indoor Air Quality Problems In Schools
Carpet use in schools provides a decrease in noise, falls, and injuries. IAQ problems can be encountered with carpet and many other materials if the school has any type of water intrusion or moisture problem, such as a leaky roof. If carpeting remains damp, it can become a primary source for microbial growth, which frequently results in adverse health effects. Carpet and other furnishings that become significantly water damaged should be removed and discarded or steam cleaned and thoroughly dried before reinstallation.
New carpet systems , like most new interior finishing materials, will off-gas VOCs for a period of time after being installed. These emissions can be significantly reduced, although not completely eliminated, in the first 72 hours through the use of proper ventilation techniques. With any floor covering system, low VOC emission products should be selected and used in school applications.
Read more about carpet at www.epa.gov/iaq/schooldesign/controlling.html#Carpet
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Can I Just Remove The Mold Myself And Reduce The Amount I Pay My Landlord In Rent That Month
No. The repair and deduct method is not automatic and only reduces a future rent payment . This method is not recommended without the advice of a lawyer.
If you want to have the mold removed , you must either:
- get a court order requiring the landlord to remove the mold, or
- follow the repair and deduct rules in Tex. Prop. Code § 92.0561 that, for example:
- limit the rent deduction for the cost of repair in any given month to the greater of one months rent or $500.00 ,
- limit the rent deduction for the cost of repair in any given month to the greater of the fair market value of one months rent or $500.00 ,
- only allow a tenant to repair and deduct if the landlord has a duty to fix the problem, and
- only allow the tenant to repair and deduct if the tenant did not waive his or her right to the repair in an enforceable provision in the lease agreement. , .)
Note: An exception exists if you and your landlord agreed in writing for you to repair a condition at the landlords expense. Read the law here: Tex. Prop. Code § 92.0561, .
Professionals Are The Best Option
Itâs best to have testing and removal work performed by a qualified professional. Hiring a professional company that is experienced at both certified inspections and remediation ensures the job will be done right.
Our team of certified inspectors and remediation professionals can handle any situation and are here to help. With over 10,000 projects completed, we have been providing our award-winning services to customers in Saskatchewan, Alberta, and Manitoba since 2009. We take great pride in improving Indoor Air Quality.
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Is Sampling / Testing For Mold Necessary
In most cases, if visible mold growth is present, sampling is unnecessary. Since no EPA or other federal limits have been set for mold or mold spores, sampling cannot be used to check a building’s compliance with federal mold standards. Surface sampling may be useful to determine if an area has been adequately cleaned or remediated. Sampling for mold should be conducted by professionals who have specific experience in designing mold sampling protocols, sampling methods, and interpreting results. Sample analysis should follow analytical methods recommended by the American Industrial Hygiene Association , the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists , or other professional organizations.
Read more about mold at